Filed under: Orangutan stories
Apes to be returned to Indonesia this week
Forty-eight orangutans smuggled into the country from Indonesia are set to be returned on Wednesday, officials said yesterday. The endangered apes have been waiting for months to return home since veterinarians confirmed they were captured in the wild in Indonesia and not born in captivity as their Thai owners had claimed.
The apes were seized from Safari World Zoo in Bangkok in a raid after forestry police and environmental groups suspected the orangutans had been smuggled into Thailand from northern Sumatra.
All of the animals have had medical check-ups and are in good health and ready to be sent back, said Pornchai Pratumratnatan, chief of Khao Pratap Chang Wildlife Rescue Centre in Ratchaburi province.
Thai wildlife officials are waiting for their Indonesian counterparts to send more cages for the apes, he said, warning that the transfer had to be carried out with great care to avoid causing the animals too much stress. The wildlife rescue centre has served as temporary shelter for the apes since 2005 while a team of Indonesian veterinarians conducted DNA tests on the animals to identify their origins. The test results contradicted the zoo’s earlier claim that many of the orangutans were born in captivity.
Forestry police have already charged the zoo owner for illegally possessing the orangutans. The zoo once had 101 orangutans in its possession. However, in 2004 nearly
half of them died under suspicious circumstances.
The zoo owner claimed they died from pneumonia but police suspected they may have been moved or killed ahead of a police inspection at the zoo.
Meanwhile, four koalas given to Thailand by Australia are set to arrive at Chiang Mai airport on Wednesday and be taken to Chiang Mai Zoo, said Sophon Damnui, director-general of the Zoological Park Organisation. Zoo officials are preparing eucalyptus varieties and a new shelter for the cuddly marsupials to make them feel at home, he said. The shelter, which will be open to the public from early next month, has been designed to imitate their native environment.
Filed under: Interesting Chimp Stories
By Charles Q Choi (LiveScience)
Males prefer older females, at least in the chimp world scientists now report.
These findings, reported in the Nov. 21 issue of the journal Current Biology, could shed light on how the more chimp-like ancestors of humans might have behaved, said researcher Martin Muller, a biological anthropologist at Boston University.
Human men often prefer young women. One reason for this, scientists propose, lies in the human proclivity to form unusually long-term mating pairs. When combined with the natural urge to beget as many children as possible, since a woman’s fertility is limited by age, men would find young women more sexually attractive.
Chimpanzees, unlike humans, do not form mating partnerships for long, and are instead promiscuous. Moreover, female chimps show no evidence of menopause, which means their fertility is not limited by age. This suggested male chimps might not care about the age of a mate as humans do.
Older is better
To test this prediction, Muller and his colleagues at Harvard investigated chimpanzees at Kibale National Park in Uganda for eight years.
“It takes a lot of effort to find them in the forest and to follow them through a lot of thick vegetation and to try and record all this,” Muller recalled.
Surprisingly, the scientists found male chimps preferred older females. Males approached older females more often for sex, and preferred clustering around older females that were in heat. Older females also had sex more frequently with high-ranking males and more regularly triggered male-on-male aggression during mating contests.
“The stereotypical view of human mating involves males wanting to be promiscuous and females being coy, but in chimps you see young females being very interested in mating with all the males, maybe going male to male and presenting their sexual swellings, sometimes grabbing their penis and playing with them, and the males just ignore them,” Muller told LiveScience.
It remains uncertain as to why male chimps would prefer older females, as opposed to not caring about age at all.
“Hormonal data collected noninvasively from urine samples suggest older females are more fecund. Perhaps this is a matter of their higher rank— older females tend to be dominant over younger ones, which gives them preferred access to the best foods, so they may be more likely to conceive,” Muller said.
In addition, the older females get, the more fit they might show themselves to be against the hardships of life, and thus could lead to equally robust children, which males could find attractive. Alternatively, older females might have accumulated mothering experience, leading to increased infant survivorship. “Or it might be any combination of these, or all of them,” Muller said.
To tease out why exactly human men favor young women and chimp males prefer older females, Muller suggested researching what other primate males look for, such as gibbons, who like humans form long-term mating pairs but like chimps do not have menopause.
Filed under: Interesting Chimp Stories
Regardless of stiff international regulations, a chimpanzee cartel thrives on the back of demand from private zoos and leading hotels.
It all started in January last year. A crate of five chimpanzees arrived in Kenya’s Sweetwaters Chimpanzee Sanctuary after it was confiscated at Nairobi airport. The crate originally carried six chimpanzees – out of which one died – and four monkeys.
Jason Mier, who is a chimpanzee activist, was concerned that such a large shipment of primates was even put together and, he then commenced, what he describes as, an alarming investigation.
The crate, which weighed 64 kg began its air travel from Kano in Nigeria and was heading to Cairo via Khartoum.
However, on arrival in the Egyptian capital, it was refused entry and ordered to return to Lagos on a flight via Nairobi, where it was finally confiscated and directed to the sanctuary in Kenya.
“It was pretty shocking to see the chimps, as the babies arrived packed in this crate and were all stressed and dehydrated without food or water for days. We’ve also heard that there were two gorillas in the crate but don’t know that for sure and have no idea what happened to them,” he told Weekend Review when he stopped over for a few hours in Dubai recently.
The concern emanates from the fact that chimpanzees and gorillas are endangered species according to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and that their illegal smuggling is resulting in the rapid depletion of the primates in their countries of origin.
If, at the start of the last century, there were up to 1.5 million chimpanzees in the African wild, Mier estimates there are a maximum of 200,000 left now. “They’ve been completely wiped out in four West African countries,” he says.
Mier, who is 27, moved from the US to dedicate his life to working with primates. He gets extremely agitated at the threat that man is posing to, what he calls, the great apes of Africa.
With demand for bush meat increasing, chimpanzee and gorilla meat, he says, is highly sought after and many primates are killed mercilessly in Cameroon. “It is the surviving orphaned babies of these animals that find their way into countries in the Middle East,” Mier says. “Not only is this scary from the wildlife point of view, but by consuming bush meat, there is an increasing risk of introducing new and different strains of disease into the human population.”
Along with associate Karl Ammann, Mier plunged into the investigation that unravelled details of what the “Cairo Connection” was, the results of which has been made into a 27-minute documentary titled Ape Smuggling – The Cairo Connection. “We found that the crate was not listed on the cargo manifest or the passenger manifest, but was travelling with an Egyptian passport holder, Ahmad Ebrahim Abdul Shafy. Also, on that flight, the only other person travelling the same Kano-Khartoum-Cairo route was an Egyptian lady, Heba Abdul Moty Ahmad Saad, who is widely known as a wildlife smuggler,” he recalls.
On its return flight to Lagos, via Nairobi, on a Kenya Airways flight, the cargo was listed as accompanying baggage – and not animals, as is required by procedure – under a different passenger’s name who, as it turned out, was Heba’s daughter. The crate was subsequently confiscated in Nairobi after a Kenyan government vet took the decision to do so because there were no documents from the airline and no address, name or markings on the crate.
Mier and Ammann suspected that the crate they had been exposed to was a freak incident of bad timing for the smugglers and that there must have been many more attempts that were probably successful. As they dug around for more information, the two discovered that there had been numerous shipments of undocumented wildlife, many warning letters from the Cairo Airport Authority and that Kenya Airways had been a prime carrier of the animals, shipping out undocumented for wildlife in inappropriate containers.
“What really bothered us was that such shipments could be accepted and handled by international airlines, which can actually play a huge role in preventing illegal wildlife trade. We have all the evidences of these trips and the various correspondences with the airline, including the letters of denial from their side despite our writing to them supplementing it with our findings,” Mier says, showing scanned copies of the proof on a compact disk.
The next logical step for them was to visit Cairo to find out what was prompting the heightened activity in chimp smuggling. Funding for this fact-finding exercise has rarely come from outside as it often comes with conditionalities.
“We can’t name and shame certain organisations as they are patrons of the donor foundation,” Mier says. Using their own finances and risking the use of a hidden camera to validate their documentary, Mier and Ammann concluded that it stemmed from a growing trend of displaying exotic fauna. Private zoos or roadside zoos were not uncommon and were even openly advertised by leading hotels on their websites, who were unafraid of flouting CITES regulations.
On their trips, they found and saw 26 chimpanzees and four gorillas and Mier says he won’t be surprised if there are more. Thanks to CITES, Mier explains that it’s now possible to trace the source of the trade as all endangered species are required to have trade records.
“But the primates in Egypt have no track-back papers. In the resort of Sharm Al Shaikh, there are two chimpanzees locked up in a private zoo, with a baby that’s not even a year old, alone in a dark cave. These are animals that are used to playing freely out in the wild and are now reduced to living in appalling conditions,” he says, running me through photographs of the chimps.
“This is the place that Tony Blair visits and stays in,” he adds.
However, their investigation was not without trouble as they were asked to leave the hotel when the culprits caught a whiff of what the two men were trying to unearth.
“There was another private zoo that hides a collection of apes – 11 chimps and two gorillas, of which, one has a CITES permit. “To smuggle a gorilla, the owner writes for a permit. Papers are issued only in Arabic, which goes against CITES regulations that require papers to be issued or accompanied by copies in English, Spanish or French.”
Convinced of a strong Cairo link, Mier and Ammann searched for further documentary evidence and found more flight manifests that revealed more shipments to Cairo and other parts of the Middle East. It also emerged that Heba and her daughters are key players in trading illegal wildlife, going back as far as 27 years.
“Bribing Nigerian officials for export documents that describe them as monkeys and not as chimps or gorillas makes things easier and it helps that Heba’s husband runs a transport business with offices in Nigeria, Cameroon and Cairo,” he says.
To complete their investigation, Mier headed out to Kano and spoke to a couple of dealers including the doorman at Heba’s house, who, Mier says, offered to sell him a chimp for $350, as opposed to another offer of sale in Cairo for $5,000. He adds that if one were to go straight to the source in the Cameroon village, a chimpanzee can be bought for as less as $50.
Mier says that Heba is now well settled in Cairo. Her neighbours in Nigeria and most people are aware of her dealings. On investigating the whereabouts and details of the man, Abdul Shafy, who was transporting the crate of six chimps, Mier found that Heba and her daughters were linked to Shafy, who is a paediatrician. “Many of the CITES and quarantine officials told us that he uses chimps for tissue and organ transplants,” he reveals.
Having worked with chimpanzees in close proximity, Mier says that they are fun to interact with and are interesting animals. But he is dead against the idea of using them as fashion statements. “I don’t have a problem if, for instance, a confiscated chimpanzee is cared for in an approved sanctuary. But it becomes a problem when primates are hunted purely to satisfy someone’s need for entertainment,” he says.
In the entire process, CITES, he believes, has come out as a rather toothless organisation that is not in a position to enforce its regulations even in countries that have signed up.
“They just told us that it’s up to the signatory countries. Now, that’s going to require a great deal of political will and how willing are governments in Cameroon, Nigeria, Egypt and Kenya going to be?” he asks.
With the documentary close to completion at the time of the interview, Mier is on the urgent lookout to get it beamed to as many viewers possible.
“Sensitising viewers on the one hand, but more importantly, to initiate some serious action against open violators of wildlife acts and efforts.”
“It’s not personal,” he says of the documentary that focuses on a couple of names and organisations. “It just so happens that it’s one case study that was investigated further to reveal quite a bit. I’m sure there are other flouters and smugglers. As an animal lover and activist, I’d like to see all illegal trade of wildlife stopped. That’s all.”
The role CITES plays
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is a global agreement between member states and aims to make sure that international trade of animal and plant life does not threaten their existence.
As cross border trade of wildlife involves different countries an arrangement between countries was required to facilitate international cooperation to protect over-exploitation. The CITES website states that it offers varying degrees of protection to more than 30,000 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.
Enforced in 1975, CITES is not a substitute for national laws. It is legally binding on the signatory parties, however, is primarily a framework within which countries have to adopt and enforce their own national regulations to make it successful in its mission.
It now has 169 countries that have signed up as CITES parties.
Follow-up trip reveals no change in situation
Following his meeting with Weekend Review, Jason Mier undertook a follow-up trip to Egypt to investigate if the situation had improved. “Far from it,” he told us after returning to his base in Kenya. “While I would be happy to say nothing has changed meaning there is no more smuggling and the appearance of new animals has stopped, I must instead say nothing has changed in the fact that on every single trip – including this one – there are more and more chimpanzees and other animals on display and offered for sale,” he says.
Mier has written to the CITES Secretariat informing them specifically of his observations. On an earlier trip last November to the Hauza Hotel in Sharm Al Shaikh, he found that the owner Ashraf Enab had two chimpanzees, with some of the employees stating he had more at home. The hotel’s website was later updated with pictures of a new chimpanzee. “Hotel travel reports on other websites indicated that he had young chimpanzees which were now available as photographic props,” he says in his letter to CITES. “These are kept in three separate groups, the two oldest chimpanzees together, then one individual kept by himself in a completely closed room with no sunlight. They are kept in human baby clothing, and for 5 euros any visitor can have a picture taken with them.”
Mier met with Dr Talaat Sedrak, the CITES representative in Egypt, and informed him of the findings. Mier says that according to Dr Sedrak, the Egyptian CITES authorities have given no permission to anyone or any facility to hold any apes other than the Giza zoo, the Alexandria zoo and to Gamal Omar/Tower Hotel to house until a suitable facility can be found – not own – only eight chimpanzees and one gorilla.
“He [Dr Sedrak] asked why Gamal Omar’s facility could not be a sanctuary and all apes sent there. I stated that as I felt that Gamal Omar and his son were smugglers, and with the extremely bad conditions and secrecy in which the animals are kept, it would be inappropriate for this to be considered a sanctuary. He ‘corrected’ me in saying that Gamal Omar does not actually bring the animals into the country, but instead only buys them from the people which smuggle them in. He did not seem to appreciate my reasoning that if he is allowed to buy up smuggled apes that he is creating the problem, not solving it,” Mier tells us and writes to the CITES officials. “He also mentioned that he was well aware of Heba and her involvement in smuggling but there was nothing he could do.”
When Mier asked Dr Sadrek about when he would take action against Heba and her family and Dr Abdel Shafy, the CITES official said that there was nothing he could do as they were powerful people. On Mier’s suggestion that Dr Sadrek should resign in protest and explain to the CITES Secretariat why he quit, the Egyptian representative requested that Mier write a report to them asking the Secretariat to tell him what his responsibilities are under CITES.
Vinita Bharadwaj, Staff Writer (Gulf News)
Filed under: Interesting Chimp Stories
GOMBE NATIONAL PARK, Tanzania — One recent night, in the cabin Jane Goodall uses when she returns to the park where her work began, researchers discussed a new and astonishing finding: An older female chimp had recently taken her daughter’s newborn and was raising it as her own.
Researchers had previously witnessed terrible moments with newborns — older females in the group have killed some. But the decision by Gremlin, one of the matriarchs in the chimp population, to snatch away her daughter Gaia’s baby remained a mystery.
‘‘It could be a protective act,’’ said Bill Wallauer, an American from Oregon City, Ore., who has been videotaping Gombe’s chimps since 1993.
He said an older female chimp had appeared moments before Gremlin took the baby and hypothesized that Gremlin believed the baby would be safer with her. ‘‘But,’’ he added, ‘‘that still leaves a lot of questions.’’
‘‘Like, why was Gaia OK with it?’’ Kristin Mosher, an American from Oswego, N.Y., who photographs the animals for the institute, said. ‘‘And does Gaia try to get the baby back?’’
“It tells us that we still have a lot to learn and to see,’’ Wallauer said.
JOHN DONNELLY (THE BOSTON GLOBE)
Filed under: Uncategorized
The aim of this blog is to give everyone access to news stories about Apes from all around the world. I would also like to encourage discussions and action through these stories.
“You don’t change the world by whispering.” Eliot Spitzer
Filed under: Orangutan stories
JAKARTA (Reuters) – About 1,000 orangutans are estimated to have died in Indonesia during the dry season this year in which raging forest fires have produced thick smoke across huge areas of Southeast Asia, a conservationist said on Monday.
The fires in the Indonesian part of Borneo have deprived orangutans of food and forced them to encroach on human settlements, where they are often attacked for damaging crops, the Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation said.
“Orangutans are starving. They are sick and many of those we are treating were injured after being attacked by machetes,” Willie Smits, an ecologist at the foundation told Reuters, adding that many also suffered from respiratory problems.
He said 120 sick orangutans had been treated in three conservation centers over the past three months, and 10 to 15 of them had died.
He estimated that in all 1,000 orangutans had died over this year’s dry season.
Orangutans live on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, but encroachment on their habitats by humans and massive destruction of forests is threatening their existence.
In 2002, it was estimated there were 56,000 orangutans in the wild but the population has dwindled at a rate of 6,000 a year, conservationists say.
Heavy rain brought a respite to fires in Borneo’s Kota Waringin Barat where about 6,000 orangutans live at the Tanjung Puting national park, the park’s director Bambang Darmaji said.
“The weather here is all clear,” he told Reuters.
But the airport in Palangkaraya, the capital of Central Kalimantan province, remained closed due to poor visibility, its director Jamaluddin Hasibuan said.
Most of the annual dry season fires are deliberately lit by farmers or at the behest of timber and oil palm plantation companies.
Indonesia’s neighbors, Singapore and Malaysia have grown increasingly frustrated by the fires which triggered fears of a repeat of the choking situation that hit the region in 1997-98.
Filed under: Interesting Chimp Stories
By Deanna Fené
First Coast News
FORT PIERCE, FL — For the first time in their lives these chimpanzees are free to roam, free to play, free to interact with others.
They are all curious and all very different, each one has their own personality and their own way of doing things.
Tammy is, for instance, a picky eater. Emily is very maternal. She came from Africa more than forty years ago.
There are nearly one-hundred chimpanzees here. They range in age from three to 47-years old. The older ones came from Africa. They were brought to America when they were just babies to be part of the space program.
In the late 1950s the U.S. Air Force used a group of chimpanzees to test the effects of space travel on humans. The chimps were exposed to adverse conditions in order to make space flight possible.
The tests included spinning the chimps in a giant centrifuge, exposing them to powerful G-Forces, and measuring how long it took one of the animals to lose consciousness in a decompression chamber.
Once America made it to space, the chimps were no longer of any use. They were leased out for biomedical research.
“These chimps were used in research, one research protocol after another so a lot of them at age of twenty, which is a mature age, have heart conditions and high blood pressure. We’re seeing all sorts of complications,” said Dr. Carole Noon, founder of Save the Chimps.
The chimps were poked, injected with diseases and operated on after the Air Force gave them to the Coulston Foundation, a now defunct biomedical research facility in New Mexico.
Many lived for several decades in small cages.
Dr. Noon calls them cement cages because the cages were too small for the chimps to stand and too close for them to interact with others.
Many became sick and depressed.
“Chimps are like us. They are as social as you and I are. When we want to punish someone for a heinous crime we call it solitary confinement and that’s what these chimps were living in,” said Dr. Noon.
Dr. Noon took them away from all that. She got custody of the 21 former Air Force chimps. In 2002, she acquired the Coulston Foundation’s Biomedical Research Lab and custody of an additional 266 chimpanzees.
“I knew when I started I was going to grow gradually, that was part of my plan. I didn’t plan to grow overnight,” said Noon.
Eventually nearly 300 rescued chimpanzees will live at the sanctuary.
Dr. Noon has created twelve islands near Fort Pierce, complete with jungle gyms and hammocks for the chimps to play on. Each island also has its own indoor feeding house.
These chimpanzees, who once had the “right stuff” for the space program, are now free to live out their lives in a more natural, peaceful environment.
“I’m doing it with the support of a lot of people because it’s the right thing to do, because except for a couple of genes here and there, they are us. They certainly deserve better than they have gotten,” said Noon.
Filed under: The Bushmeat Crisis
13 October 2006
By Anton Antonowicz
Filed under: Chimpanzee Welfare
November 12, 2oo6
Every sunday for the last three years I have been working with a local wildlife park to implement an enrichment program for their primates: squirrel monkeys, tufted capuchins and chimpanzees. I am very passionate about improving the living conditions of primates in captivity. Many primates all over the world are forced to live out their lives in barren, unnatural enclosures without a thought for their psychological well-being. They are cared for, fed every day and their enclosures are cleaned but this is not enough. Mental health is as important as physical health.
When I first met Joey and Tubman, who are in their late thirties, their enclosures were barren and out-dated but the keeper and staff were happy to work with me to improve the lives of the primates in their care. Our priorities were building hammocks for the chimps so that they could sleep off the ground to reduce the risk of chills and to install logs at low and higher levels to encourage climbing. I also introduced a daily enrichment program which consists of six areas:
1. Permanent structures such as platforms, climbing structures, ledges, etc.
2. Semi-permanent items that are removable such as tyres, hammocks, ropes and cargo nets.
3. Non-permanent objects are placed in the chimpanzee enclosures daily and cleaned after they leave the area (magazines, paper, cardboard boxes, clothes, shoes, toys, etc.).
4. Food Puzzles are means of food dispersal that requires tool use and critical thinking skills to obtain the food such as a tree trunk with holes filled with raisins or cereals or an artificial termite mound (under construction).
5. Food can be presented in a variety of ways to encourage foraging such as hiding it in boxes, adding straw or sawdust or hanging the fruit in bags.
6. Music: playing the radio or tapes with different sounds.
All of the objects in these six areas are cheap or free and therefore there is absolutely no excuse for all facilities holding primates not to implement them. With a little bit of effort the differences in the animals’ psychological health can be astounding.
Joey in particular has made the most progress over three years. Originally he rarely moved around the enclosure, and if he displayed he would get out of breath very easily. Also, he showed a lack of interest in most enrichment activities such as scatter feeding or introducing new objects. Today he has lost weight, he regularly utilises more of his enclosure, he brachiates, plays and participates in all enrichment activities.
Tubman has always enjoyed the enrichment activities and he especially enjoys using branches to get raisins out of holes. He enjoys human contact and laughs when groomed or tickled.
Working with Joey and Tubman has made me realise that we should never give up on older animals because they all have the potential to flourish if efforts are made to change their lives. It is such a great feeling to see depressed listless individuals become more active and enjoy life.